Did you know stress dysregulates immune function?
Chronic stress activates the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis which causes release of catecholamines that modulate a range of immune functions including cells proliferation, cytokine function and antibody production - So here’s a little comic to make you smile and reduce stress.

Smile and boost your immune system!

Did you know stress dysregulates immune function?

Chronic stress activates the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis which causes release of catecholamines that modulate a range of immune functions including cells proliferation, cytokine function and antibody production - So here’s a little comic to make you smile and reduce stress.

Smile and boost your immune system!

The respiratory tract, from the tip of the nose to the bronchioles, is exposed to pathogens present in the air. The innate immune system protects us against these pathogens by acting as a physical barrier.The respiratory tract is lined with sticky mucus secreted by goblet cells, which traps pathogens. Underneath the mucus, the epithelial cells are covered with cilia. The beating of these cilia transports the pathogens to the pharynx or nose, where they are swallowed or sneezed out.It is a brilliant anatomical barrier.I always imagine ciliated epithelial cells as little people nodding there head to music. Anything that gets stuck in their hair gets moved out of the system as a result of their head banging. They clean up the respiratory tract while bobbing to music, making them totally groovy!The wonderful work respiratory epithelium does in the presence of music makes us recommend that you work with music on too :D

The respiratory tract, from the tip of the nose to the bronchioles, is exposed to pathogens present in the air. The innate immune system protects us against these pathogens by acting as a physical barrier.

The respiratory tract is lined with sticky mucus secreted by goblet cells, which traps pathogens. Underneath the mucus, the epithelial cells are covered with cilia. The beating of these cilia transports the pathogens to the pharynx or nose, where they are swallowed or sneezed out.

It is a brilliant anatomical barrier.

I always imagine ciliated epithelial cells as little people nodding there head to music. Anything that gets stuck in their hair gets moved out of the system as a result of their head banging. They clean up the respiratory tract while bobbing to music, making them totally groovy!

The wonderful work respiratory epithelium does in the presence of music makes us recommend that you work with music on too :D

revengeofthespock
revengeofthespock:

the-pyxis-child:

revengeofthespock:

immense-immunology-insight:

7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal
1. Cancer cells don’t age.Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.7. They have metabolic super powers.The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

So if somehow we were to find a way to harness the cancer cell’s power, we could possibly live forever. We’d just have to find a way turn turn all the cells in the body into cancer cells, and then take away their ability to divide via mitosis. It sounds like sci-fi, but highly plausible in theory.

Well there’s more to it than that, but in theory yes… You also have to consider that tumor cells don’t actually function other than continuously dividing. And often times, tumor cells build up a lot of free radical waste that can damage surrounding tissue.

You have a point, but that isn’t entirely true. While most cancer cells are nonfunctional, many actually do function similar to a normal cell (though sub par). The main reason why cancer kills people is because the rapid growth of tumors causes pinched tissues and ruptures/hemorrhages. If we could figure out how to prevent mitosis and make all cancer cells functional, we could possibly become immortal.

May I just say, I love sci-fi theories. Immortality through cancer cells.. Now that’s some brilliant imagination, right there!
Yes, some cancer cells can function. But it’s too much for the body to handle. If we could control metastasis, we could send some liver cells and gut cells at every waste generating site and have our free radicals scavenged!

revengeofthespock:

the-pyxis-child:

revengeofthespock:

immense-immunology-insight:

7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal

1. Cancer cells don’t age.
Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.

2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.
They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.

3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.
The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.

4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.
Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.

5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.
Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.

6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.
When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.

7. They have metabolic super powers.
The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

So if somehow we were to find a way to harness the cancer cell’s power, we could possibly live forever. We’d just have to find a way turn turn all the cells in the body into cancer cells, and then take away their ability to divide via mitosis. It sounds like sci-fi, but highly plausible in theory.

Well there’s more to it than that, but in theory yes… You also have to consider that tumor cells don’t actually function other than continuously dividing. And often times, tumor cells build up a lot of free radical waste that can damage surrounding tissue.

You have a point, but that isn’t entirely true. While most cancer cells are nonfunctional, many actually do function similar to a normal cell (though sub par). The main reason why cancer kills people is because the rapid growth of tumors causes pinched tissues and ruptures/hemorrhages. If we could figure out how to prevent mitosis and make all cancer cells functional, we could possibly become immortal.

May I just say, I love sci-fi theories. Immortality through cancer cells.. Now that’s some brilliant imagination, right there!

Yes, some cancer cells can function. But it’s too much for the body to handle. If we could control metastasis, we could send some liver cells and gut cells at every waste generating site and have our free radicals scavenged!

7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal
1. Cancer cells don’t age.Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.7. They have metabolic super powers.The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal

1. Cancer cells don’t age.
Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.

2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.
They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.

3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.
The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.

4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.
Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.

5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.
Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.

6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.
When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.

7. They have metabolic super powers.
The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

Anonymous asked:

How do T cells recognize tumor cells and kill them??

To be precise, it is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte that recognizes the tumor cells.

Numerous tumor antigens have been identified that can be recognized by cytotoxic T cells through MHC class I.

T cells use two major mechanisms to kill tumor cells: the death receptor pathway and the granule exocytosis pathway.

In the death receptor pathway, the lymphocyte displays the death ligand CD95L on the cell surface, triggering apoptosis via the death receptor CD95 on the target cell.

I have explained the granule exocytosis pathway in the link.

Hope it helps! ^__^

Anonymous asked:

Hi, we are from an immunology department and are looking for some prizes for a game during our retraite - we would love to use a few of your cartoons to print on a mug. Are you OK with that? Off course as it is with the copyright text included. Thanks.

Omg yes! We would feel so honored! :D

But there are some specifics our graphic designer would like to discuss with you. Can you inbox me your email address? We’ll get back to you asap.