7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal
1. Cancer cells don’t age.Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.7. They have metabolic super powers.The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

7 reasons why cancer cells are immortal

1. Cancer cells don’t age.
Normal cells go through senescence through shortening of telomeres with every cell division. Cancer cells however have telomerase that will sustain the telomere length of the chromosomes rendering the cell virtually immortal.

2. Cancer cells have a way around apoptosis, their programmed cell death.
They overexpress antiapoptotic molecules and can multiply forever.

3. The Grim Reaper can’t recognize them.
The Natural killer cells, or the Grim Reaper; are supposed to cause death of the tumor cells. However, cancer cells remain undetected because they down regulate their MHC proteins or use decoy proteins to look innocent.

4. If recognized, the Grim Reaper can’t kill them.
Tumor cells block the death receptor pathway and directly interfere with the perforin/granzyme pathway. That is why, natural killer cells fail to kill them.

5. Cancer cells don’t need anything.
Cancer cells are self sufficient on growth factors. This means that they can continue to proliferate and divide independently, as opposed to normal cells that need external growth factors.

6. And if they do need something, they order it to come to them.
When cancer cells need of oxygen and nutrients, they stimulate angiogenesis; which is inducing growth of new blood vessels.

7. They have metabolic super powers.
The metabolism of malignant cells is usually more anaerobic than that of normal cells and is greatly accelerated. Malignant cells have the ability to withstand hypoxic conditions. They have increased glucose and amino acid uptake. In addition, they have high levels of hexokinase increasing their glucose utilization.

Anonymous asked:

How do T cells recognize tumor cells and kill them??

To be precise, it is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte that recognizes the tumor cells.

Numerous tumor antigens have been identified that can be recognized by cytotoxic T cells through MHC class I.

T cells use two major mechanisms to kill tumor cells: the death receptor pathway and the granule exocytosis pathway.

In the death receptor pathway, the lymphocyte displays the death ligand CD95L on the cell surface, triggering apoptosis via the death receptor CD95 on the target cell.

I have explained the granule exocytosis pathway in the link.

Hope it helps! ^__^

Anonymous asked:

Hi, we are from an immunology department and are looking for some prizes for a game during our retraite - we would love to use a few of your cartoons to print on a mug. Are you OK with that? Off course as it is with the copyright text included. Thanks.

Omg yes! We would feel so honored! :D

But there are some specifics our graphic designer would like to discuss with you. Can you inbox me your email address? We’ll get back to you asap.

iactaaleaest asked:

Can you please explain VDJ recombination to me? I'm a first year medical struggling with immunology!

Hi! I have a test coming up and I do not have the time to make comics and explain it to you like I usually do =)

I’ll explain it to you later, I promise (Just please remind me if I forget!)

Here is a great post on VDJ recombination for now —> http://immense-immunology-insight.tumblr.com/post/84724911095/b-and-t-cell-maturation

I reblogged it myself for you.

Hope you get comfortable with immunology and rock it this year!